|Melchizedek, Priest and King|
Answer - Join the club!
I think this is a question that has been asked almost as long as the scriptures have been in print and distributed for people to read and study. Melchizedek is one of the most mysterious characters to appear in the Old Testament narrative.
The Book of Genesis is categorized as a history book. Rightly so. It contains thousands of years of history. From the literal beginning of history to the death of the man whose name was changed to Israel.
Among other things, it is a book of lineages and genealogies tracing mankind from the first created man (Adam) to the patriarch of the nation that God chose to be His representatives on earth.
So, it is a little surprising that in the middle of this narrative, in the story of the life of Abraham, that a person greater than Abraham (shown in Abraham's giving of the tithe) suddenly and mysteriously appears without any mention of lineage. No genealogy. No back story at all.
In Genesis 14 we are given the account of what happened when Abraham and his nephew Lot got caught up in a war. You can read this account for yourself. I encourage you to do so. It is a very interesting glimpse into how God had blessed His humble servant Abraham. But for now, here is a synopsis of what happened:
• Four Kings from the area of Mesopotamia had gone to war against five Kings from the region of Southern Canaan. Apparently this started over a rebellion of servitude to one of the Mesopotamian Kings.
• One of the Kings that was defeated was the King of Sodom, who ruled over the city where Abraham’s nephew Lot lived. In those days, when a King was defeated, the victorious King would take away all of the losing King's valuables including people, who would be forced into slavery or held for ransom.
• Among the people taken was Lot (and presumably his family according to Genesis 14:16) who had become quite wealthy as he had traveled with his uncle Abraham.
• When Abraham hears that his relative has been captured, he leads out his 318 men who were trained for war and in a brilliant act of strategy and guerrilla warfare (not discounting the hand of God on Abraham in all of this which Abraham himself will recognize with a giving of a tithe or 10% of the goods recovered). Abraham defeats the armies of the four Kings and is able to return all the goods and people that were taken.
• One interesting note that would carry significance into the New Testament Book of Hebrews is that Abraham is the first person to be called a Hebrew (vs. 13). This designation of "Hebrew" likely refers to their descent from their ancestor Eber (Genesis 11:14-16).
Out of recognition that this was indeed God who brought about this victory, Abraham gives God’s Priest the first recorded tithe. He also refuses to take any reward from the King of Sodom, who ruled over the people referred to as wicked exceedingly and sinners against the Lord. Abraham does this to avoid being obligated to him in any way. By doing this, Abraham makes a public declaration that he recognizes God’s sovereignty and that it is God who he serves and who has his total allegiance.
But, that’s it. That’s all we get to see or know about Melchizedek. He shows up, feeds and blesses Abraham and his men, takes the tithe, and then is gone. No record of where he came from or who his descendants were. If there were any.
All we can know is what was recorded by the inspired author of Genesis 14:18-20:
• Melchizedek’s name is derived from the Hebrew word for king which is “Melek” and the Hebrew word for righteous which is “Tsaddiq” pronounced “sad-deek”.
• His name means “My King is Right” or “Righteous” (cf. Hebrews 7:2).
• We are also told that he is the King of Salem (Jerusalem) and since the Hebrew word for peace or “Shalom” is very similar to the Hebrew for “Salem” or “Shalom” his title is also “King of Peace” (cf. Hebrews 7:2).
• The last thing we discover about him from Genesis 14:18 is that he is also the “Priest of God most High" (El Elyon), the first specific priest of God to be mentioned.
This “Righteous King” and “Priest of God” breaks bread with Abraham, prays a blessing, receives a tithe and then is not mentioned again for over 1,000 years until the time of David when he is inspired to write the Psalms. In Psalm 110:4 (A Messianic Psalm) David is inspired to write that the Messiah would be a “priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.”
• The original Hebrew reader would have recognized the significance in this right away from the account of Melchizedek found in Genesis 14.
• The Messiah would be like Melchizedek in that He would fill the office of (or be) both a King and a Priest. This is contrary to the Aaronic priesthood which serves only as priest, not king.
• And, since Melchizedek had no recorded beginning or ending to his life, the Messiah would be King and Priest forever! Zechariah 6:12-13 also gives a glimpse into the time when the Messiah would unite the offices of Priest and King if you want to do further study.
Aaron the Priest
It would be extremely exhaustive to try and explain the entire message of Hebrews in this answer. But here are a few highlights as to why the writer of Hebrews used Melchizedek as a type or example of the everlasting Kingship and Priesthood of Christ:
Melchizedek is mentioned in Hebrews 5, 6, and 7 and as an example of Christ’s God ordained priesthood and His superiority over the old system or covenant.
Hebrews 5 compares the Aaronic High Priests with the High Priesthood of Christ.
• Basically it points out that the High Priest is selected or ordained by God.
• No one takes the honor upon themselves. It is a call of God.
• God had appointed Aaron and his descendants to be His priests, with Aaron being the first High Priest.
• In verses 6 and 10 however, there is a difference. The Christ, the Son of God, is appointed High Priest in the order of Melchizedek. Not in the order of Aaron.
• The human High Priests, descendants of Aaron were… well, human. They had a beginning of life and an end. Their genealogy could be traced backward and forward according to their family tree. All the way back to Aaron.
• But the Christ is a High Priest in the order or likeness of Melchizedek. A High Priest forever. Without beginning or end.
So, what does it mean that Jesus Christ is a High Priest in the order of Melchizedek?
It means that He received this Honor from God rather than a result of human ancestry. That His Priesthood is forever.
Hebrews 6 reinforces the superiority of Christ as High Priest in verse 20 as His priesthood is forever. Without end.
Hebrews 7 continues this declaration. You really should read through these three chapters and then the entire book of Hebrews to get the whole picture of the superiority of Christ over any religious system or other sacrifice that could ever be made for our sins.
But here’s my point as far as it relates to the original question (which seems like long ago…lol).
I believe that there is good reason that when we are introduced to the first Priest of God Most High in Genesis 14, that we are not given any information of where he came from, his genealogy, or who his descendants were because he would typify the High Priesthood of Christ. Which is the exact reason the writer of both Psalm 110 and Hebrews used him as an example or likeness to help people understand who Jesus is and what He did on our behalf.
Think about it:
• Jesus is the Great High Priest. Better than any human priest because He is eternal, without beginning or end!
• Jesus’ sacrifice of His own perfect life (blood) was not like the animal sacrifices that were required for each individual's sin, each and every time that individual sinned. Jesus’ sacrifice was for all sin. Given once, for all time! (Romans 6:10, 1 John 2:2, Hebrews 9:12).
• Jesus is not just the High Priest. He is the King of kings and Lord of lords (Revelation 19:16) the true King of Righteousness. So I can truthfully declare, “My King is Righteous” forever!
Everything that Genesis 14:18-20 and Hebrews 7:1-3 ascribes to Melchizedek is even more true about Jesus Christ. Think about it…
I believe that’s why Melchizedek is presented in scripture the way he is. It’s just another example of God’s grace in helping us understand. I know there are many theories or opinions that can be found that try to explain, satisfy, or stimulate our imaginations as to just who this mysterious Melchizedek was.
A few that I found in just a short search ranged from the idea that he was Shem (son of Noah) who was miraculously still alive and acting as a priest for God, to the idea that perhaps he was an example of a Theophany or the pre-incarnate Christ (which I was actually taught before). Even the suggestion that he wasn’t really a historical person and had been added to the text of Genesis at the time of David in an attempt to endorse David’s God ordained Kingship.
All I can tell you is what Scripture actually says. He lived at the time of Abraham, he was the King of Salem, and he was used as a type or likeness as a way of helping us understand who the true Christ really is.
Bottom line: we just don’t know who he was entirely. His appearance in the Bible can be confusing with the limited information we are given. For the Questioner to “feel like they are missing something” is accurate. We are! But I believe we are missing the information about Melchizedek’s life for a reason. Because it helps us understand more about Jesus, our King and High Priest forever!
Hope this helps, P. Scott